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 Add this item to the list   Ludwigia grandiflora
    

Illustrations

 Illustrations:
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  • Ludwigia_grandiflora_3352_07080304.JPG
  • Ludwigia_grandiflora_3352_07080316.JPG
  • Ludwigia_grandiflora_3352_DSCN3565.jpg
  • Ludwigia_grandiflora_3377_08061208.jpg
  • Ludwigia_grandiflora_DSCN2478.jpg
  • Ludwigia_grandiflora_IMG_0959.jpg
  • Ludwigia_grandiflora_JVV3806_DSCN0154.jpg
 

Taxonomy

 Family:Onagraceae 
 Genus:Ludwigia 
 Epitheton:grandiflora 
 Author(s):(Michaux) Greuter & Burdet 
 Subspecies:Ludwigia grandiflora Greuter & Burdet subsp. grandiflora; Ludwigia grandiflora Greuter & Burdet subsp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) Nesom & Kartesz 
 Rank:species 
 Vernacular names:Large-flower primrose-willow, Uruguayan primrose-willow (UK), waterteunisbloem (NL) 
 Synonyms:Jussiaea grandiflora Michx. non Ruiz & Pav.; Jussiaea grandiflora f. natans Glück; Jussiaea grandiflora f. semimersa; Jussiaea grandiflora f. terrestris Glück; Jussiaea michauxiana Fernald, nom. illeg.; Jussiaea repens subsp. grandiflora (Michx.) Fournier; Jussiaea repens subsp. hirsuta var. uruguayensis (Camb.) Hassler; Jussiaea repens L. var. grandiflora (Michx.) Micheli; Jussiaea repens var. hispida Hauman-Merck; Jussiaea repens sensu Coste; Jussiaea stenophylla Gillies ex Hook.; Jussiaea stuckertii H. Lev.; Jussiaea uruguayensis Camb.; Jussiaea uruguayensis var. genuina Munz; Ludwigia clavellina Gómez var. grandiflora (Michx.) Gómez; Ludwigia uruguayensis (Camb.) H. Hara; Ludwigia uruguayensis (Camb.) H. Hara var. grandiflora 
 EPPO code:LUDUR 
 Plant code - standard list:SL5335 
 Botanical thesaurus:
 
 Factsheet link (English):
 
 Factsheet link (French):
 
 Factsheet link (Dutch):
 

Morphology

 
Overall
 Height of plant (m):0 
 
Roots and stem
 Length of stem (m):0 - 3 
 Description of subterranean parts:2 types of roots are observed: roots which absorb nutrients and attach the plant to the soil, and adventitious roots located along the stems which ensure oxygen uptake and favour rooting of plant fragments (cuttings). 
 Description of stem:Herbaceous; floating and subglabrous in vegetative state, erect and densely hairy in flowering state, usually erect, to 1 m tall, up to 3 m in deep water, and up to 80 cm above water level. 
 
Fruit and seeds
 Description of seed:Baculiform, round, smooth, dull brown. 
 Description of fruit:Fruiting pedicel (0.5-)2.5-6 cm long, capsule hairy, light brown; seeds firmly embedded in woody coherent endocarp, pendulous, appearing as bumps in capsule wall ca 1.5 mm apart, uniserate. Bracteoles dark green, deltoid, 0.5-1 mm long. 
 Length of seed (mm) :0.967 
 Width of seed (mm):0.542 
 Length of fruit (mm):13 - 25 
 Width of fruit (mm):3 - 4 
 
Propagules
 Description of propagule:Fragmentation of stems; seeds? 
 
Leaf
 Description of leaf:Lanceolate, polymorphic, alternate; stipulae oblong, triangular, flat. Early growth consists of rosette-like clusters of rounded leaves on the water surface; at flowering leaves lengthen to a lanceolate or elliptic shape. Leaves cuneate at the base, apex acuminate; main veins 8-13 on each side of midrib. 
 Length of leaf (cm):3 - 13 
 Width of leaf (cm):0.3 - 2.5 
 Length of petiole (cm):0.1 - 0.5 (2.5) 
 
Phyllotaxy:
alternate yes
opposite no
 
decussate no
whorled no
 
 
Flower
 Description of inflorescence:Flowers solitary, axillary. 
 Description of flower:Actinomorphic; sepals 5 (rarely 6), deltoid-aciminate, villous (hairs 1-2 mm) or glabrous; petals 5, caducous, obovate, emarginate, bright golden-yellow with a darker spot at the base; stamens in 2 whorls, the epipetalous ones shorter; disc slightly elevated, with a depressed, white-hairy nectary surrounding the base of each epipetalous stamen; style glabrous or hairy in lower two-third. 
 
Color of flower:
white no
yellow yes
orange yes
pink no
brown no
 
red no
purple no
blue no
green no
   
 
 Length of sepal (mm):6 - 14 (20) 
 Width of sepal (mm):1.5 - 3 
 Length of petal (mm):12 - 23 (30) 
 Width of petal (mm):9 - 15 
 Number of stamens:10 
 Description of stamens:Filaments 2-4 mm long, anthers 2-3 mm long. 
 Number of styles:1 
 Number of ovaries:1 
 Description of ovary:Ovary inferior, with 5 loculi and numerous seeds in 1 row per locule. 
 Length of styles (mm):4 - 6 
 Number of stigmas:1 
 Description of stigmas:Subglobulose, 1.5-2 mm thick. 

Additional information

 Similar species:Ludwigia grandiflora and Ludwigia peploides are morphological very similar. Differences are as follows. L. grandiflora: anthers 2-3 mm and stipulae oblong, triangular and flat. L. peploides: anthers 1.3 mm and stipulae almost round, strongly swollen in fresh state.  
 Look-alike link:
 

Distribution information

 Original distribution:Native of the New World from the southeastern US to the Rio La Plata in Argentina.  
 Current distribution:Data on their geographical distribution is lacking and complicated by the fact that the genus Ludwigia is under revision. As a consequence, the following distribution is only preliminary. Europe: Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, UK and regulated in Portugal. North America: USA. Central America: Cuba. South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay.  
 Distribution:
  • Ludwigia_grandiflora.gif
  • Ludwigia_grandiflora.gif
 

Biochemistry and molecular data

 Ploidy:2n = 80 
 Biochemical information:The species has a high content of saponins and calcium oxalate. 

Ecology

 
Life cycle:
annual no
perennial yes
 
monocarp yes
biennial no
 
 Competitiveness:It forms very dense (almost impenetrable) mats. 
 
Flowering time in Europe:
January ?
February ?
March ?
April ?
May ?
June variable
 
July variable
August variable
September variable
October ?
November ?
December ?
 
 Hardiness:Plants have shown a rather good resistance to frost in Europe. 
 Habitat requirements:Slow-flowing waterways. Lakes, ponds, ditches. The species is also able to colonize river banks and humid pastures. 
 Ecological amplitude:The species has a preference for growing in full sun. 
 Habitat in the Netherlands:Eutrophic ditches and canals, sand- and claypits. 
 Palatability:The species is poorly consumed by herbivorous animals. 

Invasiveness, risk and control

 
Dispersal mechanism:
wind ?
water variable
others variable
 
endozoochorous ?
ectozoochorous variable
   
 
 Host, diseases and pest information:In Argentina Lysathia flavipes (Coleoptera) attacks Ludwigia. 
 Invasive behavior information:Fragmentation of stems is the main mode of dispersal of Ludwigia grandiflora. The role of seeds remain to be studied further (viable seeds were able to germinate in laboratory conditions but no data have yet been obtained in outdoor conditions). It is suspected that humans and birds are responsible for plant dissemination between waterways. Over long distances, trade for ornamental purposes (aquarium and ponds) can obviously ensure their dissemination. The rapid and extensive development of a population can block waterways (and thus disturb many human activities), reduce biodiversity and degrade water quality. In France biomass can double in 15 to 20 days in slow-flowing waters, and in 70 days in rivers. 
 Control:Control is very difficult (mechanical control is possible but care should be taken not to produce more fragments which may disseminate the plant further, hebicides are available but their use in the natural environment is difficult). 
 Pathway of introduction:Ornamental 

Link to other websites / databases

 Link to other websites_Url:
 

Bibliography

 Bibliography:
 
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