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 Add this item to the list   Lupinus polyphyllus


 Plant code - standard list:SL1899 
 Botanical thesaurus:


 Height of plant (m):0.5 - 1.5 
Roots and stem
 Description of subterranean parts:Creeping rhizomes. 
 Description of stem:Upper part of stem with rather sparse short hairs; stem usually unbranched. Pale green. 
Fruit and seeds
 Description of seed:Variously spotted, shining. 
 Description of fruit:A pod, compressed, 2-valved (opening explosive), erecto patent, sparsely hairy, hairs apressed, brown (black at maturity), seeds 4-10 (12). 
 Length of seed (mm) :3.5 - 4.5 
 Width of seed (mm):2.6 - 2.8 
 Length of fruit (mm):25 - 40 
 Description of propagule:Seeds and by division of creeping rhizomes. 
 Description of seedling:Hypocotyle 2-4 cm, glabrous, more or less woody. Seed-leaves 2, petiole ca 5 mm, glabrous, sheathed at base, asymmetrically bean-shaped, base cuneate, 10-12 mm, herbaceous, glabrous, tip rounded. Epicotyle absent. Leaves more or less alternate, petiole 2-2.5 cm with many long yellowish unicellular hairs and lanceolate-linear stipules, palmate, leaflets sessile, obovate-lanceolate, base cuneate, 1.5-2 cm, herbaceous, with hairs as petole, tip angular-acute, entire. 
 Description of leaf:Stipules pubescent and adnate to base of petiole, subulate; petioles with rather sparse short hairs; leaves palmate, leaflets 9-17, lanceolate to oblanceolate, 70-150 x 15-30 mm, glabrous above, sparingly sericeous beneath. Basal leaves present at flowering time. 
 Length of petiole (cm):1 - 4 
alternate yes
opposite no
decussate no
whorled no
 Description of inflorescence:Inflorescence 1; peducle 3-8 cm long; flowers more or less whorled in a terminal raceme, 20-50 cm long;bracts caducous. 
 Description of flower:Sepals 5, ± connate into tube, tube deeply 2-lipped, lower lip of calyx 3-8 mm, upper lip of calyx entire or minutely toothed, 9-10 mm; petals 5, 1 adaxial petal (standard), 2 lateral petals (wings), connate at the apex and 2 lower petals, connate by their lower margins (keel); keel beaked, standard outside and enclosing the other petals in bud. Corolla 12-14 mm (about 3 times as long as the calyx); style incurved. Flower 1-1.5 cm long. 
Color of flower:
white variable
yellow variable
orange no
pink variable
brown no
red no
purple variable
blue variable
green no
 Number of stamens:10 
 Description of stamens:stamens all fused. 
 Number of styles:1 
 Number of ovaries:1 
 Description of ovary:superior. 

Additional information

 Uses:As an ornamental; sweet cultivars are a valuable fodder crop (seeds of wild form contain bitter-tasting toxic alkaloids). L. polyphyllus is an important crop on an international basis (amino acids and proteine synthesis, oils and alkaloid etc.). It has been (and still is) planted for stabilisation of open soils after construction works and it is used in fire-protection belts in forests (in Lithuania) 
 Similar species:Lupinus arboreus x L. polyphyllus = L. x regalis Bergmans; much closer to L. polyphyllus: stems erect, usually at least sparingly branched, to 1.5 m, with rather sparse short hairs; leaflets (7) 9-15, mostly more than 6 cm, oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic; lower lip of calyx 5-8 mm; corolla in various colours. L. x regalis x L. nootkatensis is difficult to identify; it is intermediate and fertile. 

Distribution information

 Original distribution:W. Canade and W. USA. 
 Current distribution:Asia: Pakistan. Europe: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, France, Iceland, Italy, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovenia, Slowakia, Sweden, Switzerland, UK. North America: Canada, USA. South America: Argentia. Oceanica: Australia, New Zealand 
  • Lupinus_polyphyllus_NL.gif
  • Lupinus_polyphyllus_world.gif

Biochemistry and molecular data

 Ploidy:2n = 48. 


Life cycle:
annual no
perennial yes
monocarp no
biennial no
Flowering time in Europe:
January ?
February ?
March ?
April ?
May yes
June yes
July yes
August yes
September ?
October ?
November ?
December ?
 Pollination characteristics:Pollinated by bees. 
 Dormancy:The seed longevity may be more than 50 years. 
 Habitat requirements:It is not shade-tolerant and it is not tolerant to maritime exposure. 
 Ecological amplitude:In its native range it grows commonly along streams and creeks, preferring moist habitats. Agricultural areas, boreal forest, disturbed areas, grass- and heathlands, riparian zones, urban areas, wetlands. 
 Palatability:Roots, raw or cooked, edible. 
 Dependency on other organisms:L. polyphyllus grows in symbiosis with a nitrogen-fixing bacterium Bradyrhizobium sp. which causes growth of root nodules. The bacterium acquires molecular nitrogen from atmosphere thus enriching the soil. 

Invasiveness, risk and control

Dispersal mechanism:
wind ?
water ?
others variable
endozoochorous ?
ectozoochorous ?
 Invasive behavior information:In New Zealand ( and parts of Europe) it covers large areas next roadsides, pastures and riverbeds. The plant threatens here indigenous species. 
 Toxicity:Seeds contain toxid alkaloids. 
 Control:Weeding, herbicides and grazing with sheep. 
 Pathway of introduction:Introduced for ornamental use; escapes from cultivation. 

Link to other websites / databases

 Link to other websites_Url:
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