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 Add this item to the list   Phytophthora ramorum
    

General information

 Organism group:Phytophthora 
 Taxonomic info on species (MycoBank):
 
 Representative strain(s):CBS 101553 = BBA 9/95 = Pr-164 = P10103 = PD 20019539 
 Associated strain(s) in Q-bank:
 

Substrate and country information

 Substrates of included strains:Rhododendron catawbiense (Ericaceae); Rhododendron catawbiense cv. Grandiflora (Ericaceae); Unidentified plant; Viburnum bodnantense (Adoxaceae) 
 Countries of included strains:Germany; Netherlands; United Kingdom; United States of America 
 
Other reported substrates and countries
 
Kingdom Planta
 Plant host family:Rhododendron catawbiense 
 Plant host genus:Viburnum bodnantense 
 
Symptoms on host plant:
antracnose ?
canker ?
dieback yes
wilting yes
 
leaf spot yes
root rot no
stem base rot yes
   
 
 
Type of infection on plant:
Pathogenic yes
Opportunistic no
Saprophytic no
 
 
 Host symptoms:
  • Phytophthora ramorum on Fagus sylvatica NPPO NL 03485306 4-1
  • Phytophthora ramorum on Fagus sylvatica NPPO NL 19101-1
  • Phytophthora ramorum on Fagus sylvatica NPPO NL 19105-1
  • Phytophthora ramorum on Fagus sylvatica NPPO NL 19106-1
  • Phytophthora ramorum on Quercus rubra NPPO NL 026-1
  • Phytophthora ramorum on Quercus rubra NPPO NL 028-1
  • Phytophthora ramorum on Rhododendron NPPO NL 0038-1
  • Phytophthora ramorum on Rhododendron NPPO NL 0043-1
  • Phytophthora ramorum on Rhododendron NPPO NL 0054-1
  • Phytophthora ramorum on Rhododendron NPPO NL 2-1
 

Quarantine information

 Has quarantine status?:Yes 
 EU status:
 
 EPPO status:
 
 EPPO (Bayer) code:PHYTRA 
 Q-species description sheet:
 
 Q-species distribution map:
 
 Q-species diagnostic protocol:
 
 Q-species photos:
 
 Diagnostic locus for identification in Q-bank:ITS nrDNA must be combined with COI; see Molecular Decision Scheme. 

Morphological data

 
Pictures
 Culture CMA after 7 days at 24 °C:
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 CMA after 7 days at 24 degrees
 
 Culture PDA after 7 days at 24 °C:
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 PDA after 7 days at 24 degrees
 
 Culture V8 after 7 days at 24 °C:
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 V8 after 7 days at 24 degrees
 
 Sporangia:
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 3-way sympodium 40x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 caducous semi-papillate 40x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 caducous short pedicel 40x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 early sympodium 40x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 start of a sympodium 40x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 tapered base and ellipsoid 40x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 126586 deciduous sporangium 100x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 126586 empty deciduous sporangium 100x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 126586 empty deciduous sporangium 100x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 126586 sporangium sympodial 100x
 
 Sporangiophores:
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 126586 sporangiophore 10x
 
 Chlamydospores:
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 chlamydo intercalary 100x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 chlamydo lateral 100x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 chlamydo sympodial 100x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 chlamydo terminal 100x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 126586 chlamydospores 100x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 126586 terminal chlamydospore 100x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 126586 unilaterally intercalary chlamydospore 100x
 
 Oogonia & Antheridia:
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 oogonium 1 100x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 oogonium 2 100x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 oogonium with thick oogonial wall 100x
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 small aborted oogonium 100x
 
 Hyphal swellings:
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 rare hyphal swellings corraloid 100x
 
 Culture CMA after 7 days at 18 °C:
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 CMA after 7 days at 18 degrees
 
 Culture PDA after 7 days at 18 °C:
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 PDA after 7 days at 18 degrees
 
 Culture V8 after 7 days at 18 °C:
  • Phytophthora ramorum CBS 101553 V8 after 7 days at 18 degrees
 
 
Colony morphology
 Remarks on colony morphology:No distinct colony pattern visible when colonies are incubated in darkness. However, when colonies are placed under daylight conditions daylight induced sporulation can result in a clear pattern of concentric rings. 
 
CMA, colony pattern description:
no special pattern yes
rozette no
 
chrysanthenum no
coarsly radiate no
 
 
PDA: colony pattern description:
no special pattern yes
rozette no
 
chrysanthenum no
coarsly radiate no
 
 
CMA colony edge description:
sharp no
vague, gradual no
irregular, (rafelig) yes
 
 
 
CMA: aerial mycelium description:
only submerged mycelium no
sparse aerial mycelium yes
dense aerial mycelium no
 
fluffy no
velvety no
cottony yes
 
 
PDA: aerial mycelium description:
only submerged mycelium no
sparse aerial mycelium no
dense aerial mycelium yes
 
fluffy no
velvety no
cottony yes
 
 
PDA: colony edge description:
sharp yes
vague (gradual) no
irregular, (rafelig) variable
 
 
 
V8: colony pattern description:
no special pattern yes
rozette no
 
chrysanthemum no
coarsely radiate no
 
 
V8: colony edge description:
sharp yes
vague, gradual yes
irregular (rafelig) no
 
 
 
V8: aerial mycelium description:
only submerged mycelium no
sparse aerial mycelium no
dense aerial mycelium yes
 
fluffy no
velvety no
cottony yes
 
 
Characters in vitro
 
Sporangia in water culture
 
Shape of sporangia:
spherical/globose no
ellipsoid yes
ovoid yes
obpyriform no
obturbinate no
 
obovoid variable
elongated neck/ beaked no
tapered base yes
distorted shapes no
constricted no
 
 Width of sporangia (µm):(15.9) 17.83 - 36.1 (39.8) 
 Average length/width ratio:(1.25) 1.56 - 2.2 (2.3) 
 Caducous pedicels length (µm):(1.94) 2.38 - 4.74 (6.79) 
 Length of sporangia (µm):(22.2) 27.18 - 65.6 (70.9) 
 
Pore type of sporangia:
non-papillate no
semi-papillate yes
papillate no
 
 
 Discharge pore width:(5.4) 5.59 - 8.25 (8.9) 
 
Sporangial characteristics:
Are the sporangia caduceous? yes
>1 apex/papilla no
Presence of hyphal projections (Oc) no
Collapse after dehiscence no
 
Laterally displaced attachment of sporangiophore (Oc) no
Occurence of intercallary sporangia no
Basal plug conspicious yes
   
 
 
Sporangiophores in water culture
 
Sporangiophores on agar:
compound sympodial sporangiophores no
sympodial branching on agar yes
are sporangia present on agar?: yes
 
 
 
Sporangiophores in water:
long, irregularly branched no
umbellate no
internal proliferation no
Sympodia yes
 
basal swellings no
intercalary swellings yes
clumps no
   
 
 
Antheridia on CMA medium
 Length of antheridia (µm):(10.9) 12.7 - 17.2 (20) 
 
Shape of antheridia:
short cylindrical yes
elongated cylindrical no
spherical yes
irregular no
 
rectangular no
ellipsoid or ovoid yes
club shaped no
   
 
 Width of antheridia (µm):(12.8) 13.1 - 18.6 (19.7) 
 
Type of antheridia:
amphigynous yes
paragynous no
 
 
 
Antheridial characteristics:
Can antheridia be diclinous? yes
Do 2 celled antheridia occur? no
Tangled or knotted hyphae around the antheridium no
 
Spine or digitate projections on antheridium yes
Can oogonia have 2 or more antheridia no
Intercalary or subterminal antheridia? ?
 
 
Oogonia on CMA medium
 Length of oogonia (µm):(25.4) 27 - 35.8 (38) 
 Width of oogonia (µm):(23.3) 27.1 - 35.7 (38) 
 Remarks on oogonia:Sexual structures were produced in a polycarbonate seperated crossing with Phytophthora capsici 128.23. 
 Oogonia wall thickness (µm):(0.8) 1.1 - 2.2 (3) 
 
Oogonial characteristics:
Ornamentation no
Tapered base variable
Wall rough with age no
 
Oogonial stalk often excentric in antheridium yes
Clustered typically no
   
 
 
Oospores on CMA medium
 Width of oospores (µm):(20.5) 22.2 - 31 (33.4) 
 Wall thickness of oospores (µm):(0.5) 0.6 - 1.4 (1.7) 
 Length of oospores (µm):(21) 22.2 - 31 (33.4) 
 
Oospores plerotic or aplerotic?:
Plerotic yes
Aplerotic no
Slightly aplerotic yes
 
 
 
Chlamydospores in water culture or on CMA medium
 Chlamydospores presence:present 
 Length of chlamydospores (µm):(24.8) 36 - 51.3 (57.8) 
 Width of chlamydospores (µm):(24.8) 36 - 51.3 (57.8) 
 
Shape of chlamydospores:
globose yes
subglobose variable
Botryose no
 
 
 Location of chlamydospores on plate:variable 
 
Chlamydospore position:
Lateral yes
Terminal yes
Clustered no
 
Intercallary yes
Catenulate no
   
 
 Chlamydospore wall thickness:(0.59) 0.76 - 2.5 (3.3) 
 
Hyphal swellings in water culture
 
Shape of hyphal swellings:
Globose no
radiating hyphae no
Subglobose no
 
Flask- or Bottleshaped / (Ob)-pyriform no
Elongate no
Irregular/coralloid yes
 
 
Clustering of hyphal swellings:
Solitary no
Catenulate, in chains no
Clustered / Aggregated ?
 
 
 
Presence of hyphal swellings:
In agar no
On agar variable
 
In water no
Absent yes
 
 Remarks on hyphal swellings:Irregularly shaped hyphal swellings may occasionaly occur, but appear to be quite rare. 
 
Sexual state:
homothallic no
heterothallic mating type A1 yes
 
heterothallic mating type A2 no
Sterile no
 
 
Hyphae on CMA medium
 Maximum hyphal diameter:9.6 
 
Daily growth
 Daily growth at 24 °C on CMA agar in mm:0.8 - 1.5 
 
Cardinal temperatures
 Lowest temperature at which sustained growth was observed:3 
 Highest temperature at which sustained growth was observed:27 
 Optimum growth temperature interval starts at ... °C:15 
 Optimum growth temperature interval ends at ... °C:21 

DNA sequence data

 Sequences in Q-bank:
 

Literature

 Original publication:
 
 Other literature:
 
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